Features and uses of emergency generators
This time, the characteristics and uses of the generator for emergency use will be explained. If the generator itself is installed, there are various uses other than emergency use. In addition, when deciding on installation, where should the application be submitted, and there are cases in which it is necessary to contact the local government, etc. during installation, I think it would be great if you could explain the process.
1. There are two main types of emergency generators
There are various ways of generating electricity, but especially the generators with high versatility and good startability are suitable as generators for emergency use. The following are generators centered on two types of internal combustion engine generators, diesel generators and gas generators, I would like to briefly explain.
①Characteristics of diesel generators
Literally, this is a generator with a diesel engine as the main mechanism and is the most popular standard generator. If it is not a large facility to a certain extent, there is no gas generator in sight. In particular, as an industrial generator, a marine engine having a large torque is used. For loads caused by frequently fluctuating power demand, it is possible to output stable power, so it is not easy to cut off the power supply. From that tenacious structure, it can be used for a long time, and the value as property becomes high (expensive). I think it is a highly recommended type of generator.
②Characteristics of gas generators
This generator is based on a marine diesel engine and uses natural gas as a fuel with a low environmental load. It can be said to be a very environmentally friendly engine. If you pay attention to environmental protection, I think it is a suitable generator type. The exhaust gas is clean and low in particle size, and does not emit sulfur oxides and the like. Currently, countermeasures are being taken to diversify fuels such as LPG, self-jet, and methane fermentation gas. Compared with diesel engines, it is quieter, and can be supplied with low vibration and low fuel costs. It can be said to be quieter than a diesel engine. Please note that there are restrictions on air pollution according to the regulations of the installation site and local government. In some areas, diesel generators that use light oil as fuel cannot be used. In this case, there is nothing but the use of gas engines and gas turbine generators.
③ The structure of power generation itself
Both diesel and gas need to convert the kinetic energy obtained by the engine into electricity. Responsible for this center is the organ. That is, a device generally called a generator can be said to be a device that combines a power mechanism that generates kinetic energy and a generator that converts kinetic energy into electrical energy. An alternator is a generator that generates alternating current. Most of the things mounted on automobiles, motorcycles, and small planes use rectifiers such as diodes to rectify DC rectifiers. In these fields, including rectifiers, they are called generators. In fact, it is a part that is usually available. In the field of motorcycles, headlights, taillights, etc. are sometimes directly connected to the load in the AC state without passing through the battery, so the rectifier is not included, and it is also called Generation. Since the generator is a machine that uses the engine drive = rotation to generate electricity, whether it is a diesel engine or a gas turbine, the energy (rotation and heat, etc.) generated by the engine can be used to generate power with the generator.
2. Points to pay attention to when choosing a generator
Listed below are points to pay attention to when choosing a generator.
①Influence of power generation speed and load
The rotational frequency of the generator = frequency. In the future, if a generator is involved, there will be a mark such as a frequency of 50Hz or 60Hz, but the frequency is directly related to the number of revolutions of the engine. That is, it is necessary to continuously maintain a certain number of rotations while receiving all the loads. Because frequency fluctuations can cause fatal damage to machines that use electricity. The frequency varies depending on the installation area, so please inquire with each local government and its own fire department.
②The characteristics of the engine are important as the power to generate electricity
When the generator starts, if no electricity is used, nothing is generated. Therefore, there is also a battery inside the generator. Then, generating electricity at the same time as the demand for electricity occurs, putting a burden on the engine, and reducing demand would be counterproductive. Making fuel adjustments at this moment to protect a certain number of revolutions is similar to the analogy of a car going uphill and downhill at the same speed. However, since a car engine cannot withstand such a sharp load, the generator is designed to withstand such a load. Therefore, what kind of battery is installed inside the generator, and when it is the replacement period, etc., should be carefully set.
③ Diesel engines are roughly divided into two types.
Engines used for generators are mainly classified into truck engines and marine engines. The [Truck Engine] that increases the RPM and outputs power can be used to make a cheap generator as a difficulty, but because there is no large engine, only a generator with a small output can be used, and because it is an engine that increases the RPM output , so the torque as a generator is insufficient. Therefore, it is cheaper than the following marine engines, but slightly less safe than marine engines. [Marine engine] that emphasizes torque is a marine engine with sufficient torque, but it can be said that a ship’s engine that lasts a constant number of revolutions for a long time is an engine for a generator. The very stubborn engine characteristics that do not allow the number of revolutions to fluctuate in response to rapidly fluctuating power demands play an important role in the generator. Although the price is several times that of a truck engine, high reliability is of course a very high asset value. Even at some cost, I recommend this if you want security.
④ When selecting a model, the load factor of the power used is very important
The motive power of the generator is, in a word, the engine. For example, what happens to a car if you keep pressing the accelerator at 1st speed. The condition of the engine will deteriorate. Therefore, it is important to effectively set the usage time and load factor and select a model suitable for these dimensions. Start by knowing the characteristics of an electric motor with a large starting current, etc., at the power supply of the generator. The starting method of the motor starts from the straight-in expansion to 7 times, ※1 reactor start, ※2 slow start, ※3 inverter start, etc. The required power is calculated based on these equipment specifications, and the necessary total power is calculated. Next is the time to use the generator’s power, but the size of the generator changes depending on whether it’s emergency or regular. For example, for emergency use, several hours a day = load factor of 70 to 80% of the rated output of the generator. As a common use, continuous operation of more than 8 to 24 hours = output of 50 to 70% or less. That is, in the case of common use, it is necessary to select the main industrial generator.
3. Purpose of the generator
I would like to explain below the purpose of the generator.
①In the event of a power outage (emergency period) as a backup element
①In the event of an emergency when commercial power is interrupted, the equipment shall be installed for the purpose of power supply as insurance. To avoid short-term power outages, run for a few hours a day. ②There are various methods of starting, such as manual and automatic. It takes tens of seconds for the generator to start. ③ No blackout connection requires a UPS (large battery) to provide power when the generator starts.
②In order to suppress the peak reduction of contract electricity
①The contract fee is the price when the usage is the highest in one year, and the annual contract fee for the second year. ② In periods of high power consumption, the maximum usage value for one year can be suppressed by supplying a part of the power from the generator. ③ It is necessary to conduct a detailed discussion with the person in charge of the electrical appliance according to the needs of the person in need. It is recommended that you first consult with the electrical chief technician who is familiar with the requirements. As a calculation method, the electricity bill in the same month last year ÷ (the electricity bill in the same month this year (output kW x operating time x planned operating days x unit price of electricity bill this year) x 100% = reduction rate
③Use for the purpose of electrification
① If fuels such as automatic fuel injection and biofuels can be secured at low cost, electricity can be used to generate profits. However, there are the following concerns about the material being tapped. ② Stabilization of fuel composition and flow rate ③ Whether or not the composition is guaranteed by the manufacturer ④ Opaque factor of the purchase price of electricity
④Use of regular power supply for the purpose of supply
①A device that is constantly supplied with power from a generator. ②The gas engine, etc. with low operating cost can supply electricity when it is difficult for the electric power company to supply by frequent power generation. ③Provide stable power supply for long-term power outages. For those who want to know about fire protection laws that apply specifically to emergency generators, please see the link.
4. Regarding the application and construction of government offices before installation
Basically, it is carried out to the fire department under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and the installation site. Commonly used, very commonly used. Procedures and contents vary depending on whether it is a soot generating facility or not. According to the combustion capacity (fuel consumption per hour) of the generator, the heavy oil conversion of diesel engine is more than 50L/hr, and the gas engine is more than 35L/hr. It is a soot generating facility, and the following declaration must be submitted to the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry.・Construction plan notification form ・Instruction about soot ・Notification for change of security regulations When using a regular generator, it is necessary to add a fuel usage plan to the instruction manual for soot. The procedure to go to the fire station you belong to requires a generator installation application. Also, in the case of a diesel engine, depending on the size of the fuel tank and the type of fuel, it may be necessary to submit a small amount of dangerous goods storage and disposal declaration. Please note that details such as the installation of oil breakers (refer to the photo), capacity, and attached documents will vary depending on the local government along with the notification, so you need to consult the fire department in charge of the place where the generator is installed. In addition, when installing a generator for personal use, it is necessary to store a large amount of fuel for noise, vibration, exhaust gas, and combustible materials, so the installation must comply with the Fire Protection Law and the Building Standard Law. There are cases where local government regulations apply to the target buildings, so please inquire with each local government or its affiliated fire department. Since the generator box (cube type) when keeping a distance from the building and installing it outdoors is set, it is necessary to carefully advance the negotiation between the local government of the installation site and the fire department it belongs to. Regarding construction, we will handle everything from replacement of consumables to load testing, so please feel free to inquire about generator questions and quotations.
Today is not a difficult and detailed content, but an easy-to-understand introduction to selection methods, precautions, and various uses. For example, generators and the like, in fact, the parts used around them are important parts for generators, etc., generally do not know. However, like the person who saw the blog this time, if you know the generator, the engine will run when the generator is abnormal, but if it does not generate electricity, you will get information about whether the generator is bad or not. When our company and other disaster prevention companies conduct quotation requests and on-site surveys, we can quickly communicate on-site information, and I think it can be handled smoothly, so please be sure to pay attention to such information.